2018年度 第1回研究会(講演)

日 時: 2018年04月21日(土)17:15~19:15
会 場: 早稲田大学 早稲田キャンパス 14号館 6階 610教室

Language learner motivation: Where are we now?
講演者: Stephen Ryan 氏 [早稲田大学]
司会者: 浅利 庸子 氏 [東京理科大学]

In recent years, language learner motivation has become one of the most active areas of research in foreign language education. This activity has been at its strongest in settings where motivation has been regarded as a problem. Unsurprisingly, Japan has been one of the world’s most active settings for language learner motivation research, with the underlying premise of much of this research being that a greater understanding of motivation can contribute to more effective teaching practice and, ultimately, successful learning. In this presentation, I will discuss some of the key developments in recent thinking about language learner motivation and consider some of the ways in which thinking about motivation and language learning may be about to change in the future. In particular, I intend to focus on the relationship between theory and practice looking at how recent research can be applied to teaching contexts where the foreign language is essentially a compulsory school subject. Drawing on new ideas coming from the field of positive psychology, I will ask fundamental questions relating to how we interpret ‘language learner’ motivation, and how language teachers can maintain a balance between aiming for gains in linguistic proficiency and fostering well-being in their learners.

2018年度 第2回研究会(講演)

日 時: 2018年05月26日(土)17:15~19:15
会 場: 早稲田大学 早稲田キャンパス 14号館 6階 610教室

Points which English teachers should know when they teach speeches: through the experiences of working as a news commentator
講演者: 米山 明日香 氏 [青山学院大学]
司会者: 浅利 庸子 氏 [東京理科大学]

Recently, the importance of teaching speeches at high schools and universities has been getting more and more significant and required. In this lecture, the speaker will talk how English teachers can teach English speeches effectively by using historically famous speeches.
She has been teaching speech technique and pronunciation by utilizing famous and persuasive speeches at classes. ‘Recitation’ is one of the most effective and frequently used ways to teach and learn speeches and pronunciation; however, she realized that the performance of students was not good enough as they did not fully understand the contents of the speeches. As a result, the students just memorized and gave speeches without deep thought. She found out that there should be improvement.
After she started to teach the background of the speeches, her students started to understand more about the speeches themselves. In addition, the speech styles and the pronunciation of the students changed dramatically. She realized the importance of teaching background through the experiences of working as a news commentator.
In this lecture, she will choose several speeches and talk the background of the speeches as a model, and present how to teach them effectively.

2018年度 第3回研究会(講演)

日 時: 2018年06月02日(土)17:15~19:15
会 場: 早稲田大学 早稲田キャンパス 14号館 6階 610教室

講演者: 名達 健介 氏 [ベネッセ・コーポレーション営業開発部高大接続課]
司会者: 松坂 ヒロシ 氏 [早稲田大学]


2018年度 第4回研究会(講演)

日 時: 2018年07月14日(土)17:15~19:15
会 場: 早稲田大学 早稲田キャンパス 14号館 6階 610教室

Bilingual Education and Multilingualism in Japan
講演者: 坂本 光代 氏 [上智大学]
司会者: 松坂 ヒロシ 氏 [早稲田大学]

This presentation will take up bilingual education and multilingualism in Japan by addressing two groups of leaners: Japanese and non-Japanese residing in Japan.
First, bilingual theories and hypotheses will be explored to provide the backdrop of the discussion. Part one addresses Japanese English learners, based on the data collected at a private Japanese university. The findings suggest that principles that underlie plurilingual language policy advocated by MEXT are not in line with the perceptions Japanese EFL learners have. Despite teacher interventions, the research found how hegemonic, imperialistic discourse is very much prevalent among Japanese youths, and unless this can be eradicated, plurilingual Japan would be difficult to achieve.

Part two focuses on the non-Japanese residing in Japan by exploring a Peruvian mother’s narratives in raising bilingual (i.e., Spanish & Japanese) children. Her narratives suggest that, despite the children’s potential to acquire L1 (mother tongue), L2 (Japanese) and L3 (English), Japanese schools have proven to focus only on SLA. Furthermore, it was found that school’s expectations towards minority children’s academic performance is low, far from actively promoting bilingualism if not trilingualism. It is argued that measures be taken to rectify the Japanese education system in order to realize plurilingual and multilingual Japan.

2018年度 第5回研究会(講演)

日 時: 2018年09月29日(土)17:15~19:15
会 場: 早稲田大学 早稲田キャンパス 14号館 6階 610教室

講演者: 鈴木 薫 氏 [名古屋学芸大学]
司会者: 浅利 庸子 氏 [東京理科大学]

 初めに、ニュージーランド手話の句と複合語の表現に関して、ニュージーランド北島のオークランドにあるKelston Deaf Education Centre(KDEC)の手話教育スタッフを対象として収集したデータを提示する。共通する特徴や個人差を明らかにし、先行研究で分析しているアメリカ手話や日本手話と比較する。ニュージーランド手話もアメリカ手話と同様に英語をベースにしているので、十分に英語が獲得できていないと手話の使用にも困難が生じる。よって、英語音声との相違点に着目することにより、英語学習に与える影響を考察する。聴覚障害者を対象とした句と複合語の音声認識に関する先行調査の結果から、言語学習における音韻の形成や処理に関わる問題点を明らかにする。オークランド市内にあるOrmiston Primary Schoolで取材した授業の様子を紹介し、聴覚特別支援教育の今後の動向について模索する。

2018年度 第6回研究会(修士論文中間報告会)

日 時: 2018年10月13日(土)16:30~19:15
会 場: 早稲田大学 早稲田キャンパス 14号館 6階 610教室

司会者: 小林 潤子 氏 [神奈川県立横浜南陵高等学校]

発表題目: Japanese high school students’ L2 willingness to communicate in classrooms from an ecological perspective
発表者: 村田 華奈子 氏 [早稲田大学大学院教育学研究科修士課程1年]
In the field of SLA, many researchers have emphasized communicative interaction with a view to Swain’s (2000) output hypothesis, which postulates that practice in using the L2 is a key factor in successful language acquisition. Despite this shared belief, not all students are always willing to attempt L2 communication (MacIntyre, Baker, Clément, & Donovan, 2003). In order to explore the reason why some people initiate communication more frequently while others remain silent, Willingness to Communicate (WTC) in L2 has been an interesting issue for many researchers (Yashima, 2002; Peng 2007; Mystkowska-Wiertelak & Pawlak, 2017; Zhang, Beckmann, & Beckmann, 2018). L2 WTC is defined as “a readiness to enter into discourse at a particular time with a specific person, or persons using a L2” (MacIntyre, Dörnyei, Clément, & Noels, 1998, p. 547). Higher L2 WTC can lead to increased opportunity for authentic L2 use because WTC is the final psychological step before starting L2 communication (MacIntyre, 1994). In other words, the higher WTC students have, the more likely they are to succeed in L2 acquisition.
This study deals with Japanese high school students’ L2 WTC in classrooms from an ecological perspective. In EFL situation like Japan, students are exposed to limited amounts of English outside of the classrooms. As Peng and Woodrow (2010) indicated, “the language classroom is an essential platform for learners to experience interactive communication using the target language” (p. 835). Examining these participants can contribute to decode learners’ communication psychology and find ways to enhance their L2 WTC in class. The presenter will discuss some issues in L2 WTC study from the ecological approach and present the master thesis’s plan.

発表題目: Creativity and ELF in written language: From the perspective of readers
発表者: 田中 藍渚 氏 [早稲田大学大学院教育学研究科修士課程1年]
This research focuses on creativity and intelligibility of written works in English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) context where people of different first languages (L1) use English for communication. For the past two decades, there have been a great number of studies on ELF interactions. The majority of the studies have focused on spoken interactions (Seidlhofer, 2011; Jenkins, 2000, 2007, O’Neal, 2015; Jenkins, 2007, Pitzl, 2012), and only some have researched written language by approaching from the domain of academic writing (Dontcheva & Povolna, 2014; Ingvarsdóttir & Arnbjörnsdóttir 2013; Kuteeva & Mauranen 2014). Furthermore, those that have looked into creative or informal writings are limited. The term “creative writing” expands its connotation to not only professional literature but also ordinary posts or blogs on Social Networking Services as they bring people in the current world closer.
In today’s society, people have more opportunities to write English to spread their ideas to those who do not share the same L1. It is worthy to investigate intelligibility of such informal written works of ELF writers and how they are evaluated by ELF readers. A small preliminary study was conducted in the summer of 2018. In the study, three samples of creative writings by three different Japanese participants with different levels of English proficiencies were evaluated by eight readers of seven different ethnic backgrounds. The readers’ reactions to the writings focused primary on linguistic features such as grammar/spelling mistakes, and on their impressions about the contents. The results found that, as for some of the writings, the readers outweighed the message of the contents over linguistic errors while as for others, the readers were critical about being not intelligible enough to be evaluated. This finding suggests that with the rapid increase of inter-cultural interaction in the world, there is necessity of further study to consider determinants of creativity within the context of ELF creative writings.

発表題目: A comparison between the effectiveness of shadowing and listen-and-repeat methods on Japanese junior high school students’ English weak vowels acquisition
発表者: 肥田 和樹 氏 [早稲田大学大学院教育学研究科修士課程2年]
This study is concerned with the comparison between the effectiveness of shadowing and listen-and-repeat methods on Japanese junior high school students’ English weak vowel acquisition. A small number of studies show that shadowing training has positive effects on acquiring the prosody of English and improving fluency (Nakayama, 2016; Zakeri, 2014), while listen-and-repeat training, including repetition training, has been reported to improve the length and quality of vowels, and nonnative consonant clusters in foreign language learning (Davidson & Wilson, 2016; Rojczyk, 2013; Wilson, Davidson, & Martin, 2014; Zając, 2013). 19 Japanese junior high school students participated in the study, and they were divided into the listen-and-repeat training group (8 students) and the shadowing group (11 students). The duration of the training was about 15 minutes, and the trainings were carried out 8 times. For the purpose of gaging and comparing the effectiveness of these training exercises, a pre-test, a post-test, and a delayed posttest were conducted. The students read the same short English dialogue at each test, and they were recorded for acoustic analysis. This presentation is going to report on the results of acoustic analysis for the purpose of investigating the effects of these trainings on Japanese junior high school students’ English weak vowels acquisition.

 村田さんの ‘Japanese high school students’ L2 willingness to communicate in classrooms from an ecological perspective’ では、日本人が教室でした英語を使用しない状況を考えて、高校の現場で教室を活用して英語教育を成功させるための示唆に富む発表でした。

 田中さんの発表は、‘Creativity and ELF in written language: From the perspective of readers’ でした。日本人の学生の英作文を、ELFの方たちがどのようにその作文を評価するかというものでした。言語的な間違いを強く指摘する人と内容に評価が行く人など、例を示してくださいました。例としてあげて下さった英文がとても印象的でした。

 肥田さんは修士2年でもう修士論文の直前まで、完成しているというものでした。‘A comparison between the effectiveness of shadowing and listen-and-repeat methods on Japanese junior high school students’ English weak vowels acquisition’ という内容で、シャドーイングの弱母音の習得に与える影響について検証されていました。シャドーイングに関する研究はTALKでも複数していただきましたが、「音声」との組み合わせで、効果が検証できたことは、英語の発音指導の1つの方法として、現場でも活用できると思います。



2018年度 第7回研究会(講演)

日 時: 2018年11月10日(土)17:15~19:15
会 場: 早稲田大学 早稲田キャンパス 14号館 6階 610教室

Speech Acts in Discourse
講演者: 大石 悦子 氏 [東京理科大学]
司会者: 浅利 庸子 氏 [東京理科大学]

More than half a century has passed since Austin’s book, How to Do Things with Words, was published. The concept of speech act is still important not only in philosophy of language, but also in pragmatics. The term of speech act “denotes the sense in which utterances are not mere meaning-bearers, but rather in a very real sense do things, that is, perform actions” (Levison 2017:199). Because of this speech-act-theoretic view of utterances, the development of the speech theory has been going hand in hand with that of pragmatics, which targets the study of language use.
The concept of speech acts in discourse, however, has not been developed in spite of the fact that discourse-anchored analyses of language use are a major part of pragmatics. This is partially because Austin (1962]1975) firstly introduced explicit performatives which are performed by independent utterances (such as “I name this ship the Queen Elizabeth). It is also because Searle (1969, 1979) focuses on speaker’s intention which makes an utterance a particular speech act, and the description of speech acts in sequence is beyond this theory of speech acts (Searle 1992).

Oishi and Fetzer (2016:49) reanalyzes Austin’s category of expositives, one of the five categories of illocutionary acts, as discursive acts: they are the type which “makes manifest how speech acts and their linguistic realizations are intended to be interpreted in discourse. Their interpretation in discourse may trigger a (re)contextualizing of locutionary meaning and illocutionary force, thus contributing to the structuring of discourse”.

The first part of the talk focuses on (i) explaining Austin’s speech act theory and expositives as a discursive act type, and (ii) clarifying how to analyze utterances in discourse as speech acts. In the second part, a movie Sommersby (1993) is used to provide a speech-act-theoretic analysis of a sequence of utterances as discursive acts.

Austin, John L. 1975. How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press [First edition 1962] Levinson, Stephen C. 2017. Speech acts. In: Y. Huang (Ed.), The Oxford Handbooks of Pragmatics, 199–216. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oishi, Etsuko and Fetzer, Anita. 2016. Expositives in discourse. Journal of Pragmatics 96, 49-59. Searle, John R. 1969. Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Searle, John R. 1979. Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Searle, John R. 1992. Conversation. In: J. R. Searle, H. Parret and J. Verschueren (Eds.), (On) Searle on Conversation, 7–29. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

2018年度 第8回研究会(TALK TIME)

日 時: 2018年12月15日(土)17:15~19:15
会 場: 早稲田大学 早稲田キャンパス 14号館 6階 610教室

話題提供者: 久保 岳夫 氏 [早稲田実業学校]


  話題提供者より、このように英語教材を眺める観点として、(1) どのような例文を提示すべきか、(2) aとtheを例文にどのように盛り込むべきか、(3) (要約文を含む)本文の書き換えは妥当か、という3点が提示された。

  (1) に関しては、「比較的容易に『誰が』『誰に対して』『どういう状況で』使われる例文なのか想像できる」ことが肝要ではないかという問題提起がなされ、いくつか具体的な例文を見ながら議論がなされた。

  (2) に関しては、話題提供者が巷の参考書で見つけた a と the の使い方が微妙な例文が提示され、参加者で使い方について考えた。

  (3) に関しては、実際の検定教科書で採用されているパッセージの要約作成問題には強引に文法シラバスに沿らせたやや形の歪んだ英文が採用されているのではないかという問題提起が実例を通してなされた。また、「コミュニケーション英語」などの教科書に採用されているパッセージにおいても、原文から平易な英文への書き換えにおいて、内容としても原著者としても重要な箇所が抜け落ちていることがあることが実例を通して指摘された。


[文責:久保 岳夫]

2018年度 第9回研究会

日 時: 2019年1月26日(土) 14:00~17:15
場 所: 早稲田大学 早稲田キャンパス 14号館 4階 401教室

講 演: 松坂 ヒロシ 氏 (TALK) [早稲田大学教育学部英語英文学科 教授]
発表1: 相吉 晃太朗 氏 (KLA) [東京大学大学院総合文化研究科言語情報科学専攻 修士課程]
Law Lok Gi Iris 氏 (KLA) [東京大学大学院 総合文化研究科言語情報科学専攻 研究生]
発表2: 柳川 浩三 氏 (TALK) [法政大学理工学部創生科学科 准教授]

【講演題目】Choosing Pronunciation Norms on Universal Design Principles
【講 演 者】松坂 ヒロシ 氏
This presentation aims to discuss the question of the norm for teaching English pronunciation to EFL learners. Now, more than ever before, teachers are expected to be able to explain to learners, and sometimes even to co-workers and/or learners’ parents, the rationale behind the choices that they make in planning their class work, and the choice of the pronunciation norm is perhaps the most difficult one for them to justify because there seem to be a wider range of attitudes towards this issue among stakeholders than there are towards other EFL-related issues. Two major attitudes may be identified in this area: one that regards native speaker accents as ideal; the other that is sympathetic to the view that, in this age of world Englishes, learners should speak English with their respective L1 accents. I will argue that each of these attitudes has its own problems and suggest that what one may call Universal Design (UD) principles should be applied to the choice of the norm. UD is design of tools, furniture, architecture, etc., which is friendly both to people with disabilities and to people without them. As I believe that teachers should teach pronunciation which is friendly both to non-native speakers (that is, people with handicaps) and to native speakers (that is, people without them), I will propose, if not a specific sound system, a general philosophy which may guide teachers as they justify their policy on pronunciation teaching.
【発 表 者】相吉 晃太朗 氏 & Law Lok Gi Iris 氏 (KLA)
【発 表 者】柳川 浩三 氏 (TALK)
 本発表では、タスクを中心とした授業 (Task-Based Language Teaching, TBLT)で、L2学習者の1) 教室内言語不安がどのように変化し、2) どの程度心理的欲求が充足され、3) 教室内言語不安の変化と心理欲求の充足との間にどのような関係があるかを調べた結果を報告する。それによって、TBLTの可能性と課題を提示し、コミュニケーション能力の育成を志向した英語授業の構築と発展に貢献したい。


2018年度 第10回研究会(講演)

日 時: 2019年03月30日(土)17:15~18:30
会 場: 早稲田大学 早稲田キャンパス 14号館 4階 401教室

講演者: 松坂 ヒロシ 氏 [早稲田大学]
司会者: 山口 高領 氏 [立教女学院短期大学]

 発表者は、鈴木健・明治大学教授と共に、ファン・エイムレン及びスヌック・ヘンケマンス共著Argumentation: Analysis and evaluation (2nd ed.)を翻訳し、共訳は『議論学への招待:建設的なコミュニケーションのために』(大修館)として昨年8月に刊行された。今回の発表では、翻訳を通して発表者が学んだことを報告し、議論学の考え方が語学教育に組み入れられることの必要性について考察する。発表者はかねてから英語教育の一環としてディベート教育を行ってきており、形式にのっとったディベートに進む前に、準備段階として、トゥールミン・モデルと呼ばれる論理モデルを使用した批判的思考の訓練を行ってきた。しかし、発表者は、今回の翻訳作業を通して、この論理モデルを中心としたせまい意味における議論の教育は、よき言語使用者を育てる教育のためには不十分であるとの理解に到達した。原著者たちは、pragma-dialectics(この用語に対して訳者は当初「語用論的論理学」という訳語を考えていたが、最終的には、これを「現実的論理学」と訳した)の専門家である。現実的論理学は、冷徹な論理のみで相手を論破することを最終目的とせず、コミュニケーションの観点からの議論の「効果」を重視する。今回の発表において、発表者は、この考えかたこそが外国語教育に取り入れられるべき哲学なのではないか、という主張を試みる。

 松坂先生による、大学における英語ディベート教育内容の一部が報告されました。それは、形式に則ったディベート実践の前に行われる準備段階における批判的思考の訓練内容でした。Toulminモデルを踏まえつつ、松坂先生と鈴木健先生が訳された著書の内容、中でも stategic maneuvering をディベート教育に取り入れることができるのではないかというのが大きな要旨と感じました。stategic maneuvering の中に、論理学における伝統的概念である fallacies を位置づけている点が私にとって斬新な切り口と感じました。また、もう一つ新鮮だったのは、私の言葉で言い換えると「議論ないし主張が生じていると考えられる場合は、まずその可能性から考慮せよ」との格率/格律です。かなり単純化するならば、察知力とでも言えるのでしょうか。コミュニケーションにおける重要な要素に、他者理解ないし他者の立場を想像できる力があると私は信じていますが、この力は、先の格率/格律を指導に用いることで養われるのではないかと思いました。
[文責:山口 高領]